The cohesive strength meter has been used in various studies worldwide to measure sediment stability. Below is a list of relevant papers. To submit your paper to this list, please email csm@partrac.com.

Black, K.S., Sun, H., Craig, G., Paterson, D.M., Watson, J., and Tolhurst, T.J., (2001) Incipient erosion of biostabilised sediments examined using Particle-field Optical Holography. Environmental Science and Technology 35 (11): 2275-2281.

Chapman, M.G. and T.J. Tolhurst (2007) Relationships between benthic macrofauna and biogeochemical properties of sediments at different spatial scales and among different habitats in mangrove forests. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 343: 96-109.

Consalvey, M. C. Tolhurst, T. J. and Paterson, D. M. (2003) Intertidal biofilm recovery after a simulated in situ disturbance event. In Estuarine and Coastal Sciences Association. 2003. Coastal Zone Topics, 5. The estuaries and coasts of north-east Scotland. Aberdeen, Estuarine and Coastal Sciences Association. pp 71-76.

Darby, S. E., J. Leyland, M. Kummu, T. A. Räsänen, and H. Lauri (2013), Decoding the drivers of bank erosion on the Mekong river: The roles of the Asian monsoon, tropical storms, and snowmelt, Water Resour. Res., 49, 2146–2163, doi:10.1002/wrcr.20205. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/wrcr.20205/pdf

de Deckere E.M.G.T., Tolhurst T.J. & de Brouwer J.F.C. (2001) Destabilisation of cohesive intertidal sediments by infauna. Estuarine Coastal and Shelf Science 56 (5): 665-669.

Defew EC, Tolhurst T.J., Paterson DM (2002) Site-specific features influence sediment stability of intertidal flats. HESS 6(5): 971-981.

Defew, E.C., Tolhurst T.J., Paterson DM & Hagerthey SE (2003) Can the stability of intertidal sediments be predicted from proxy parameters? An in situ investigation. In Estuarine and Coastal Sciences Association. 2003. Coastal Zone Topics, 5. The estuaries and coasts of north-east Scotland. Aberdeen, Estuarine and Coastal Sciences Association. pp 61-70. PL0112

Friend,P.L., Carl L. Amos, Natural coastal mechanisms – flume and field experiments on links between biology, sediments, and flow, Continental Shelf Research, Volume 27, Issue 8, 1 May 2007, Pages 1017-1019, ISSN 0278-4343, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.csr.2006.12.008. (http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0278434306004043)

Grabowski,R.C., Droppo, I.G., Wharton, G., Erodibility of cohesive sediment: The importance of sediment properties, Earth-Science Reviews, Volume 105, Issues 3–4, April 2011, Pages 101-120, ISSN 0012-8252, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.earscirev.2011.01.008. (http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0012825211000171) Keywords: erosion threshold; erosion rate; entrainment; mud; sediment transport; cohesion

Montserrat, F., C. van Colen, S. Degraer, T. Ysebaert, and P. M. J. Herman. (2008) Benthic community-mediated sediment dynamics. Marine Ecology Progress Series 372:43-59. 4452

Paterson, D.M., T.J Tolhurst, J.A Kelly, C Honeywill, E.M.G.T de Deckere, V Huet, S.A Shayler, K.S Black, J de Brouwer, I Davidson, Variations in sediment properties, Skeffling mudflat, Humber Estuary, UK, Continental Shelf Research, Volume 20, Issues 10–11, 1 July 2000, Pages 1373-1396, ISSN 0278-4343, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0278-4343(00)00028-5. (http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0278434300000285) Keywords: Mudflats; EPS; Extracellular polymeric substances; Erosion; Biogenic stabilisation; Diatoms; Bedforms; Chl a; In situ measurements

Tolhurst,  T.J., M. Consalvey, D. M. Paterson. Changes in cohesive sediment properties associated with the growth of a diatom biofilm. (Acc by Hydrobiologia Jan 2007).

Tolhurst,  T.J., E.C. Defew, J.F.C. de Brouwer, K. Wolfstein, L.J. Stal, D.M. Paterson, Small-scale temporal and spatial variability in the erosion threshold and properties of cohesive intertidal sediments, Continental Shelf Research, Volume 26, Issue 3, March 2006, Pages 351-362, ISSN 0278-4343, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.csr.2005.11.007. (http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0278434305002517)

Tolhurst,  T.J.and Chapman M.G. Patterns in biogeochemical properties of sediments and benthic animals among different habitats in mangrove forests. (Accepted by Austral Ecology Nov 2006).

Tolhurst T.J., Defew EC, Perkins RG, Sharples A and Paterson DM. (2006) The effects of tidally driven temporal variation on measuring intertidal cohesive sediment erosion threshold. Aquatic Ecology, 40: 521-531.

Tolhurst T.J., Friend PL, Watts C, Wakefield R, Black KS and Paterson DM. (2006) The importance of rain in intertidal cohesive sediment stability. Aquatic Ecology, 40: 533-541.

Tolhurst, T. J., Gust, G. and Paterson, D. M. (2002) The influence of an extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) on cohesive sediment stability. In: Fine Sediment Dynamics in the Marine Environment, Winterwerp, J.C., Kranenburg, C. (Eds) Proceedings in Marine Science 5, 409-425.

Tolhurst, T.J., Jesus, B., Brotas, V. and Paterson D. M. (2003) Diatom migration and sediment armouring – an example from the Tagus Estuary, Portugal. Hydrobiologia 503, 183-193.

Tolhurst, T.J., K.S. Black, D.M. Paterson, H.J. Mitchener, G.R. Termaat, S.A. Shayler, A comparison and measurement standardisation of four in situ devices for determining the erosion shear stress of intertidal sediments, Continental Shelf Research, Volume 20, Issues 10–11, 1 July 2000, Pages 1397-1418, ISSN 0278-4343, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0278-4343(00)00029-7. (http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0278434300000297) Keywords: Erosion threshold; Erosion rate; Cohesive sediment; Instrumentation; UK; Humber estuary; Skeffling mudflats

Tolhurst, T.J., K.S. Black, S.A. Shayler, S. Mather, I. Black, K. Baker, D.M. Paterson, Measuring the in situ Erosion Shear Stress of Intertidal Sediments with the Cohesive Strength Meter (CSM), Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, Volume 49, Issue 2, August 1999, Pages 281-294, ISSN 0272-7714, http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/ecss.1999.0512. (http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0272771499905127)

Tolhurst, T.J., M.G. Chapman, Spatial and temporal variation in the sediment properties of an intertidal mangrove forest: implications for sampling, Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, Volume 317, Issue 2, 23 April 2005, Pages 213-222, ISSN 0022-0981, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jembe.2004.11.026. (http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0022098104006343) Keywords: Sediment properties; Mangrove forest; Sediment; Spatio-temporal variation

Tolhurst, T.J., R Riethmüller, D.M Paterson, In situ versus laboratory analysis of sediment stability from intertidal mudflats, Continental Shelf Research, Volume 20, Issues 10–11, 1 July 2000, Pages 1317-1334, ISSN 0278-4343, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0278-4343(00)00025-X. (http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S027843430000025X) Keywords: Sediment stability; Erosion shear stress; Intertidal mudflat; Diatoms; Disturbance; UK: Humber estuary; Skeffling mudflats; Germany: Sylt-Rømø Bight

Vardy, S., J.E. Saunders, T.J. Tolhurst, P.A. Davies, D.M. Paterson, Calibration of the high-pressure cohesive strength meter (CSM), Continental Shelf Research, Volume 27, Issue 8, 1 May 2007, Pages 1190-1199, ISSN 0278-4343, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.csr.2006.01.022. (http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0278434307000118) Keywords: Cohesive strength meter; CSM; Intertidal sediment stability; Erosion threshold; Calibration

Watts, C.W, Tolhurst, T.J, Black, K.S and Whitmore, A.P (2003) In situ Measurements of Erosion Shear Stress and Geotechnical Shear Strength of the Intertidal Sediments of the Experimental Managed Realignment Scheme at Tollesbury in Essex, UK. Estuarine and Coastal Shelf Science 56: 1-10.

Widdows, J., P.L. Friend, A.J. Bale, M.D. Brinsley, N.D. Pope, C.E.L. Thompson, Inter-comparison between five devices for determining erodability of intertidal sediments, Continental Shelf Research, Volume 27, Issue 8, 1 May 2007, Pages 1174-1189, ISSN 0278-4343, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.csr.2005.10.006. (http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0278434307000106) Keywords: Sediment; Mudflats; Erosion devices; Annular flumes; CSM; EROMES; Erosion threshold

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