Partrac CSM (Cohesive Strength Meter)

Portable instrument to measure critical entrainment stress, erosion rate and settling velocity of sediment.

Publications — September 28, 2015

Publications

The cohesive strength meter has been used in various studies worldwide to measure sediment stability. Below is a list of relevant papers. To submit your paper to this list, please email csm@partrac.com.

Black, K.S., Sun, H., Craig, G., Paterson, D.M., Watson, J., and Tolhurst, T.J., (2001) Incipient erosion of biostabilised sediments examined using Particle-field Optical Holography. Environmental Science and Technology 35 (11): 2275-2281.

Chapman, M.G. and T.J. Tolhurst (2007) Relationships between benthic macrofauna and biogeochemical properties of sediments at different spatial scales and among different habitats in mangrove forests. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 343: 96-109.

Consalvey, M. C. Tolhurst, T. J. and Paterson, D. M. (2003) Intertidal biofilm recovery after a simulated in situ disturbance event. In Estuarine and Coastal Sciences Association. 2003. Coastal Zone Topics, 5. The estuaries and coasts of north-east Scotland. Aberdeen, Estuarine and Coastal Sciences Association. pp 71-76.

Darby, S. E., J. Leyland, M. Kummu, T. A. Räsänen, and H. Lauri (2013), Decoding the drivers of bank erosion on the Mekong river: The roles of the Asian monsoon, tropical storms, and snowmelt, Water Resour. Res., 49, 2146–2163, doi:10.1002/wrcr.20205. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/wrcr.20205/pdf

de Deckere E.M.G.T., Tolhurst T.J. & de Brouwer J.F.C. (2001) Destabilisation of cohesive intertidal sediments by infauna. Estuarine Coastal and Shelf Science 56 (5): 665-669.

Defew EC, Tolhurst T.J., Paterson DM (2002) Site-specific features influence sediment stability of intertidal flats. HESS 6(5): 971-981.

Defew, E.C., Tolhurst T.J., Paterson DM & Hagerthey SE (2003) Can the stability of intertidal sediments be predicted from proxy parameters? An in situ investigation. In Estuarine and Coastal Sciences Association. 2003. Coastal Zone Topics, 5. The estuaries and coasts of north-east Scotland. Aberdeen, Estuarine and Coastal Sciences Association. pp 61-70. PL0112

Friend,P.L., Carl L. Amos, Natural coastal mechanisms – flume and field experiments on links between biology, sediments, and flow, Continental Shelf Research, Volume 27, Issue 8, 1 May 2007, Pages 1017-1019, ISSN 0278-4343, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.csr.2006.12.008. (http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0278434306004043)

Grabowski,R.C., Droppo, I.G., Wharton, G., Erodibility of cohesive sediment: The importance of sediment properties, Earth-Science Reviews, Volume 105, Issues 3–4, April 2011, Pages 101-120, ISSN 0012-8252, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.earscirev.2011.01.008. (http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0012825211000171) Keywords: erosion threshold; erosion rate; entrainment; mud; sediment transport; cohesion

Montserrat, F., C. van Colen, S. Degraer, T. Ysebaert, and P. M. J. Herman. (2008) Benthic community-mediated sediment dynamics. Marine Ecology Progress Series 372:43-59. 4452

Paterson, D.M., T.J Tolhurst, J.A Kelly, C Honeywill, E.M.G.T de Deckere, V Huet, S.A Shayler, K.S Black, J de Brouwer, I Davidson, Variations in sediment properties, Skeffling mudflat, Humber Estuary, UK, Continental Shelf Research, Volume 20, Issues 10–11, 1 July 2000, Pages 1373-1396, ISSN 0278-4343, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0278-4343(00)00028-5. (http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0278434300000285) Keywords: Mudflats; EPS; Extracellular polymeric substances; Erosion; Biogenic stabilisation; Diatoms; Bedforms; Chl a; In situ measurements

Tolhurst,  T.J., M. Consalvey, D. M. Paterson. Changes in cohesive sediment properties associated with the growth of a diatom biofilm. (Acc by Hydrobiologia Jan 2007).

Tolhurst,  T.J., E.C. Defew, J.F.C. de Brouwer, K. Wolfstein, L.J. Stal, D.M. Paterson, Small-scale temporal and spatial variability in the erosion threshold and properties of cohesive intertidal sediments, Continental Shelf Research, Volume 26, Issue 3, March 2006, Pages 351-362, ISSN 0278-4343, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.csr.2005.11.007. (http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0278434305002517)

Tolhurst,  T.J.and Chapman M.G. Patterns in biogeochemical properties of sediments and benthic animals among different habitats in mangrove forests. (Accepted by Austral Ecology Nov 2006).

Tolhurst T.J., Defew EC, Perkins RG, Sharples A and Paterson DM. (2006) The effects of tidally driven temporal variation on measuring intertidal cohesive sediment erosion threshold. Aquatic Ecology, 40: 521-531.

Tolhurst T.J., Friend PL, Watts C, Wakefield R, Black KS and Paterson DM. (2006) The importance of rain in intertidal cohesive sediment stability. Aquatic Ecology, 40: 533-541.

Tolhurst, T. J., Gust, G. and Paterson, D. M. (2002) The influence of an extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) on cohesive sediment stability. In: Fine Sediment Dynamics in the Marine Environment, Winterwerp, J.C., Kranenburg, C. (Eds) Proceedings in Marine Science 5, 409-425.

Tolhurst, T.J., Jesus, B., Brotas, V. and Paterson D. M. (2003) Diatom migration and sediment armouring – an example from the Tagus Estuary, Portugal. Hydrobiologia 503, 183-193.

Tolhurst, T.J., K.S. Black, D.M. Paterson, H.J. Mitchener, G.R. Termaat, S.A. Shayler, A comparison and measurement standardisation of four in situ devices for determining the erosion shear stress of intertidal sediments, Continental Shelf Research, Volume 20, Issues 10–11, 1 July 2000, Pages 1397-1418, ISSN 0278-4343, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0278-4343(00)00029-7. (http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0278434300000297) Keywords: Erosion threshold; Erosion rate; Cohesive sediment; Instrumentation; UK; Humber estuary; Skeffling mudflats

Tolhurst, T.J., K.S. Black, S.A. Shayler, S. Mather, I. Black, K. Baker, D.M. Paterson, Measuring the in situ Erosion Shear Stress of Intertidal Sediments with the Cohesive Strength Meter (CSM), Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, Volume 49, Issue 2, August 1999, Pages 281-294, ISSN 0272-7714, http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/ecss.1999.0512. (http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0272771499905127)

Tolhurst, T.J., M.G. Chapman, Spatial and temporal variation in the sediment properties of an intertidal mangrove forest: implications for sampling, Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, Volume 317, Issue 2, 23 April 2005, Pages 213-222, ISSN 0022-0981, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jembe.2004.11.026. (http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0022098104006343) Keywords: Sediment properties; Mangrove forest; Sediment; Spatio-temporal variation

Tolhurst, T.J., R Riethmüller, D.M Paterson, In situ versus laboratory analysis of sediment stability from intertidal mudflats, Continental Shelf Research, Volume 20, Issues 10–11, 1 July 2000, Pages 1317-1334, ISSN 0278-4343, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0278-4343(00)00025-X. (http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S027843430000025X) Keywords: Sediment stability; Erosion shear stress; Intertidal mudflat; Diatoms; Disturbance; UK: Humber estuary; Skeffling mudflats; Germany: Sylt-Rømø Bight

Vardy, S., J.E. Saunders, T.J. Tolhurst, P.A. Davies, D.M. Paterson, Calibration of the high-pressure cohesive strength meter (CSM), Continental Shelf Research, Volume 27, Issue 8, 1 May 2007, Pages 1190-1199, ISSN 0278-4343, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.csr.2006.01.022. (http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0278434307000118) Keywords: Cohesive strength meter; CSM; Intertidal sediment stability; Erosion threshold; Calibration

Watts, C.W, Tolhurst, T.J, Black, K.S and Whitmore, A.P (2003) In situ Measurements of Erosion Shear Stress and Geotechnical Shear Strength of the Intertidal Sediments of the Experimental Managed Realignment Scheme at Tollesbury in Essex, UK. Estuarine and Coastal Shelf Science 56: 1-10.

Widdows, J., P.L. Friend, A.J. Bale, M.D. Brinsley, N.D. Pope, C.E.L. Thompson, Inter-comparison between five devices for determining erodability of intertidal sediments, Continental Shelf Research, Volume 27, Issue 8, 1 May 2007, Pages 1174-1189, ISSN 0278-4343, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.csr.2005.10.006. (http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0278434307000106) Keywords: Sediment; Mudflats; Erosion devices; Annular flumes; CSM; EROMES; Erosion threshold

The 8th International Conference on Scour and Erosion — September 15, 2015

The 8th International Conference on Scour and Erosion

The 8th International Conference on Scour and Erosion will take place in Oxford, UK from 12-15 September 2016. The conference provides a platform for scientists and engineers from around the world to exchange ideas and share advances in research and practice on the scientific and engineering challenges related to scour and erosion.

The broad topics covered in ICSE conferences include fundamental mechanisms of erosion and scour, modelling (both physical and numerical) of erosion and scour processes and engineering applications that involve scour and erosion processes. The ICSE conferences have been well attended by scientists and engineers from broad areas such as civil engineering, hydraulic engineering, coastal and offshore Engineering. One of the strong features of the ICSE conferences has been the cross disciplinary collaborations.

The four keynote speakers of the 2016 conference are:

  • Catherine Avila
  • Dr Jean-Jacques Fry
  • Dr Scott Draper
  • Prof Subhasish Dey

The International Scientific Committee of ICSE 2016 welcomes submissions from all areas with relevance to the following general conference themes:

  • Internal erosion
  • Sediment transport: grain scale to continuum scale
  • Advanced numerical modelling of scour and erosion
  • Terrestrial scour and erosion
  • River and estuarine erosion including scour around structures
  • Coastal and offshore scour and erosion
  • Management of scour/erosion and sediment, including hazard management and sedimentation in dams and reservoirs.

Papers of a theoretical and practical nature are welcome, including case histories, field observations, analysis and prediction of real life problems, through to the use of advanced numerical methods in all of the above categories.

For further details about the conference please see http://www.icse2016.com/ or email info@icse2016.com

ICSE 2016

How can I measure sediment stability in deeper water? — April 21, 2015

How can I measure sediment stability in deeper water?

Partrac operates two benthic flumes for the in situ measurement of sediment stability – these are seabed lander systems designed for coastal and offshore use. The flumes are submersible marine instruments which rest unattended on the seabed and apply a controlled flow across the seabed. Sensors are used to measure seabed erosion as it occurs, typically over a 1 to 2 hour experiment time. Data on the critical entrainment stress, erosion rate and sediment settling velocity/mass deposition rate are generated. The flumes are suited to a wide variety of applications including scour rate assessment, contaminated sediment resuspension, and numerical model validation-calibration.

The smaller Voyager I system is suited to shallow water/coastal applications, and a larger Voyager II system, suitable for offshore (water depths 50 to 200 m). Both of these devices are available for hire.

For further details, please contact Kevin Black, kblack@partrac.com

Featured image

Voyager II deployment.
Do you offer international shipping? —
Can the CSM be used under water? —
Partrac CSM used in STELAR project – Mekong River —

Partrac CSM used in STELAR project – Mekong River

The Partrac Cohesive Strength Meter (CSM) is being used in the STELAR-S2S project. The overall aim of the STELAR project is to understand the importance of climatic and autogenic controls in determining the transfer of sediment from source-to-sink in one of the world’s largest rivers – the Mekong.

Floodplain characteristics and sedimentation will be obtained using the CSM and core sampling along the river channel. The CSM will be used for the initial characterisation of river bank materials and supplemented by floodplain bank stratigraphic analysis.

Floodplain accretion will be calculated using 210Pb activity from each of the cores.

Additional field studies are being completed to gather data for input into the model: bathymetry, current profiles, multibeam and suspended sediment data.

The STELAR project will provide the first comprehensive quantification of controls on riverine sediment fluxes, leading to new generic understanding of the relationships between climatic variability, fluvial processes and sediment flux to deltaic zones and the ocean.

Read more about the project here: www.stelar-s2s.org

Project Outputs:

Software (including a MatLab script for CSM data analysis)

Decoding the drivers of bank erosion on the Mekong river: The roles of the Asian Monsoon, tropical storms, and snowmelt. Darby, S.E., Leyland, J., Kummu, M., Räsänen, T.A. and Lauri, H. (2013), Water Resources Research, 49, 2146 – 2163, doi: 10.1002/wrcr.20205.

This Open Access article is available to download free here.

Louisiana University – Exopolymers and Void Ratio on the Erosional Resistance of Cohesive Sediments —

Louisiana University – Exopolymers and Void Ratio on the Erosional Resistance of Cohesive Sediments

Louisiana University purchased a Cohesive Strength Meter (CSM) from Partrac, and used it to investigate the possibility of using exopolymers to improve sediment stability in the coastal environment. Conventional soil amendments for erosion control such as lime and Portland cement carry environmental risks due to their caustic or toxic effects. The paper by Nugent et al describes how the erosional resistance of a pure kaolinite clay was enhanced using two exopolymer analogues. The CSM was used to measure the critical value of shear stress in the resultant muds, and the findings and practical applications are discussed.

The paper was published in Geo-Frontiers – http://dx.doi.org/10.1061/41165(397)153

Nugent, R., Zhang, G., and Gambrell, R. (2011) The Effect of Exopolymers and Void Ratio on the Erosional Resistance of Cohesive Sediments. Geo-Frontiers 2011: pp. 1493-1502.

doi: 10.1061/41165(397)153